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Resources

Prosecution, Transfer, and Registration of Serious Juvenile Sex Offenders

This overview paints a broad picture of the state of the law in the United States regarding these issues, and then takes a look at the relevant provisions regarding sex offender registration and notification for juveniles adjudicated delinquent in juvenile court of serious sex offenses.

Public Opinion on Juvenile Justice in America

Voters support sending serious juvenile offenders to corrections facilities, but they favor a range of less-costly alternatives for lower-level offenders, according to this nationwide poll conducted in 2014 by a bipartisan team of pollsters, the Mellman Group and Public Opinion Strategies. Voters see juvenile corrections facilities as government programs that should be subject to a basic cost-benefit test, and they strongly support a more robust probation system and more intervention by families, schools, and social service agencies. When it comes to the juvenile justice system, voters want offending youth to get the services and supervision they need to change their behavior and stop committing crimes—even if that means less incarceration.

Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach

This research illustrates on the development of adolescents and how this development can affect their criminal behavior, making them more prone to commit crimes at a young age but not once they mature. The book determines that adolescents are more sensitive to external influences such as peer pressure and immediate rewards. Adolescents are less able to regulate their own behavior in emotionally charged contexts. Adolescents show less ability to make judgments and decisions that require future orientation.

Report on Sexual Victimization in Prisons, Jails, and Juvenile Correctional Facilities - Review Panel On Prison Rape

This Report presents the findings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel), along with its recommendations, that are the result of its 2014 hearings in Washington, District of Columbia, based on two national surveys of correctional facilities by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS): Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2011-12 (May 2013) and Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2012 (June 2013).

Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails as Reported by inmate 2011-2012

This report observes into the levels of sexual misconduct in prisons. The study looked to determine the amount of sexual misconduct occurring in prison and if the acts are by officials of the prison or by other prisoners. The report determined that juveniles reported similar rates of sexual misconduct in prison as adults.

The Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) in the Lives of Juvenile Offenders

This article focuses on the prevalence and impact ACEs has on juvenile offenders and aims to address the lack of knowledge about this. Researchers have identified also identified multiple types of abuse, parental separation and other gender differences as repercussions of this.

The State of Juvenile Justice

This article discusses reforming the juvenile justice system in response to children and young people who have been victimized from non-criminal behavior. It exemplifies the misconstruing of having something "beyond control" and emphasizes on the fact that if someone does not act no one will, but in fact that if someone does act, no one else will because the burden is placed elsewhere. Reforms for replenishing these ideas are in much need not just currently but for your justice system and those affected by it.

Transfer of Juveniles to Criminal Court is Not Correlated with Falling Youth Violences

Transfer of Juveniles to Criminal Court is Not Correlated with Falling Youth Violences, an analysis by Jeffrey Butts, director of the Research and Evaluation Center at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York, refutes the claim that transferring youth to criminal court is responsible for decreasing crime rates. The dearth of data on youth prosecuted in the adult system has made such comparisons difficult in the past. However, by comparing transfer rates and crime rates from the six states with good data systems where all youth ages 16-17 are originally subject to juvenile court jurisdiction, Butts found there is no relationship between declining crime rates and transfer. For example, Butts found that Florida transfers more youth than any other state but did not achieve the same crime drop that Ohio, California, or Washington state achieved from 1995-2010.

Trying Juveniles as Adults: An Analysis of State Transfer Laws and Reporting

This OJJDP publication is a must-read bulletin as it provides the latest overview of state transfer laws and practices and examines available state-level data on juveniles adjudicated in the criminal justice system. State-by-state tables that readers will find useful include: type of transfer mechanism (i.e., judicial waiver to blended sentencing); states housing youth in adult prisons; laws allowing youth to be held pre-trial in jail; transfer data available in a state; juvenile courts that are allowed to impose criminal sanctions on juveniles; specifics of automatic/statutory waiver mechanisms; specifics of prosecutorial waiver mechanisms; and specifics of judicial waiver mechanisms (e.g., ages, offenses, burden of proof).

VIRGINIA: Laws Regarding the Prosecution of Juveniles As Adults

This document lists the laws and circunstamces under which a juvenile can be prosecuted as an adult in the state of Virginia. 

VIRGINIA: Parents Guide to Juvenile Transfer in Virginia

This guide traces a child’s path through the justice system and offers information and suggestions at each stage. It provides tools such as blank pages for notes, detachable cards, and folder pockets, so that you may use this manual as more than just a reference.

VIRGINIA: Process Evaluation of Recent Juvenile Transfer Statutes in Virginia

This report reviews the juvenile transfer statues in Virginia. 

VIRGINIA: Virginia State Crime Commission: Transfer and Certification of Juveniles

This presentation gives an overview of transfer and certification of juveniles as adults in the state of Virginia. 

WEST VIRGINIA: Adult Transfer Law Study

This study analyzes the impact of transfer law on juveniles as well as juvenile justice practitioners

WISCONSIN: Criminal Court Jurisdiction Over 17 Year-Olds

This memo clarifies the use of reverse waiver for 17-year-olds in Wisconsin and explains that juvenile offenders who violate state criminal laws generally have their cases addressed by juvenile courts. However, a 17 year-old offender is considered an “adult” for purposes of criminal prosecution and an adult court is the only court with jurisdiction over that offender.

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